# Roman Numerals

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Summary

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## Roman Numerals and Arabic Numerals: An Insight

### Introduction

The recording of quantity or measuring numbers has been a significant part of human development. Various civilizations developed diverse ways to measure or represent numerical values. One such popular methods are roman numerals and arabic numerals.

Quick Summary:

• The relationship between roman numerals and arabic numerals.
• The importance of understanding both numerical systems in everyday life.
• Reasons for converting roman numerals to arabic numerals.
• Finally, it shares a few trivia about roman and arabic numerals.

### History of Measuring Roman Numerals

Roman numerals, as the name suggests, were developed in ancient Rome. Originating around the 1st Century BC, roman numerals take a subtractive principle rather than a positional system for calculation. But like any other numerical system, it evolved over time, with its standard form finalizing around 14th century.

### History of Measuring Arabic Numerals

Contrary to popular belief, arabic numerals – the numerical system we use today – have their roots in ancient India around the 6th century AD. The system was then adopted by Persian mathematicians in the 9th century before spreading to the Arab world, hence the name ‘arabic numerals’. This numerical system is based on 10 digits from 0 to 9, and use a positional base-10 system.

### The Link Between Roman Numerals and Arabic Numerals

Though distinct, roman numerals and arabic numerals do share a common purpose – recording quantities. In today’s context, roman numerals are typically used for emphasizing royalty, denoting chapters in books, or numbering clocks, while arabic numerals are commonly used in everyday life for numerical calculations.

Knowing both systems can provide a fuller understanding of our numerological history and how our current number system works. And sometimes, knowing roman numerals can be handy, such as reading copyright dates in films or numbering pages in a preface of a book.

### Common Reasons to Convert Roman Numerals

Roman numerals are not often used for calculations or daily life measurements. But reasons to convert them to arabic numerals may include:

• Read roman numerals on clocks or books.
• Decode roman numerals used in films or shows.
• To understand older documents or transcripts that use roman numerals.
• For academic or research purposes.

### Do You Know?

• The largest number one can form in roman numerals using basic symbols is 3,888 (MMMDCCCLXXXVIII).
• The arabic numerals were not fully accepted in Europe until the 15th century, before which roman numerals were primarily used.
• Zero (‘0’) was a revolutionary concept in arabic numerals, as roman numerals had no concept of ‘zero’.
• The Super Bowl uses roman numerals to denote each game.
• The numeral for ‘4’ in roman numerals can be denoted as ‘IIII’ or ‘IV’ in different contexts.

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